Cessna 208 Caravan

The Cessna 208 Caravan is the largest single engine aircraft ever produced by Cessna. The Caravan is a high-wing aircraft with an unpressurized cabin powered by a Pratt & Whitney PT6A turboprop engine and has fixed, tricycle landing gear, floats or skiis. This model typically seats 9 passengers but can seat up to 13 passengers and a pilot.

Cessna began production of the Model 208 in 1985 and is currently in production today, serial numbers 1 through 619+.

 

Specifications

 

Exterior Dimensions

Wing span: 52 ft 1 in
Length: 37 ft 7 in (B Model is 4 ft longer)
Height: 14 ft 6 in

Interior Dimensions

Cabin Length: 14 ft 10 in (B Model is 4 ft longer)
Cabin Width: 5 ft 2 in
Cabin Height: 4 ft 3 in
Cabin Volume: 341 cu ft

Weights

Gross Weight: 7,300 lbs (B Model 8,750 lbs)
Empty Weight: 3,800 lbs (B Model 4,514 lbs)
Maximum Payload: 3,100  lbs (B Model 3,3230 lbs)
Fuel capacity: 335 gal

Engine

Manufacturer: Pratt & Whitney
Model: PT6A-114 / PT6A-114A / -140 on EX
Horsepower: 600 hp / 675 hp / 867 hp
Overhaul (HT): 3600 hrs TBO (-140 has 4000 TBO)
Years before overhaul: none

 

Performance Specifications – Caravan 208

 

Horsepower: 600.00 Gross Weight: 7,300
Top Speed: 183 Empty Weight: 3,800
Cruise Speed: 150 Fuel Capacity: 332
Stall Speed (dirty): 60 Range: 905
 
Rate of Climb: 1,215 Rate of Climb (One Engine):
Service Ceiling: 27,600 Ceiling (One Engine):
 
Takeoff Landing
Ground Roll: 970 Ground Roll 645
Takeoff Roll Over 50 ft: 1,665 Landing Roll Over 50 ft: 1,550

 

 

Performance Specifications – Caravan 208B

 

Horsepower: 675.00 Gross Weight: 8,750
Top Speed: 175 Empty Weight: 4,550
Cruise Speed: 171 Fuel Capacity: 332
Stall Speed (dirty): 61 Range: 789
 
Rate of Climb: 975 Rate of Climb (One Engine): 770
Service Ceiling: 25,000 Ceiling (One Engine):
 
Takeoff Landing
Ground Roll: 1,575 Ground Roll 915
Takeoff Roll Over 50 ft: 2,840 Landing Roll Over 50 ft: 1,740

 

 

History

 

The Cessna 208 Caravan is a utility aircraft produced by Cessna. The project was commenced on November 20, 1981, and the prototype first flew on December 9, 1982. The production model was certified by the FAA in October 1984 and its Cargomaster freighter variant was developed for FedEx. The 4 ft (1.2 m) longer 208B Super Cargomaster first flew in 1986 and was developed in the passenger 208B Grand Caravan.

Caravans are used for flight training, commuter airlines, VIP transport, air cargo and humanitarian missions.

 

Development

 

On November 20, 1981, the project was given a go-ahead by Cessna for its Pawnee engineering facility. John Berwick, chief engineer at Pawnee, came with a concept of a single engine, high-wing airplane with a large payload. Berwick had originally approached VP Bill Boettger with the idea and once Dwane Wallace approved it, Berwick told Russ Meyer he would design it.

The prototype first flew on December 9, 1982. The production model was certified by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in October 1984. A freighter variant without cabin windows was developed at the request of Federal Express as the Cargomaster. Another cargo variant for Federal Express, with a longer fuselage and a cargo pod under the belly, was developed as the 208B Super Cargomaster and flew for the first time in 1986. FedEx was initially planning to build twin-engine piston-powered airplanes with Piper Aircraft, but picked the Caravan after surveying it and having flown the prototype, becoming its standard carrier.

 

Further development

 

A passenger model, the 208B Grand Caravan, was derived from the Super Cargomaster. Since then, the Caravan has undergone a number of design evolutions, including upgrading the avionics in 2008 to provide a glass cockpit with the Garmin G1000 system. In January 2013 a higher-powered (867 shp from P&WC PT6A-140) version, the Grand Caravan EX, received FAA certification.

In August 2016, Textron announced that it would move the Cessna 208 production line from its Wichita headquarters to its Independence, Kansas production facility, for manufacture alongside along the piston-powered 172S Skyhawk, 182T Skylane, T206H Turbo Stationair and Cessna TTx; and the Citation M2 light jet. The move was made to make room for production of the Citation Longitude and Denali in Wichita.

 

Design

 

Model 208 is a high-wing braced cabin monoplane powered by a single Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A turboprop in tractor configuration. The cabin has room for nine passengers and two crew when used as a passenger aircraft with four doors: one for each crew member, an airstair door on the right side of the cabin and a cargo door on the left. The aircraft can be optionally fitted with an underslung cargo pod.

The basic 208 airframe has a fixed tricycle landing gear but can also be fitted with various types of landing gear, allowing it to operate in a wide variety of environments. Some common adaptations include floats with retractable landing gear on the Caravan Amphibian model and skis.

The interior can be outfitted with seats or as a cargo compartment. Standard high-density airline configuration has four rows of 1-2 seating behind the two seats in the cockpit. This variant is capable of holding up to thirteen passengers, although it is marketed as being able to make a profit carrying just four. The cabin can be configured in a low density passenger configuration, with 1-1 seating, as a combination of passengers and cargo, or as a strictly cargo aircraft. Many variants include an underbelly cargo pod, which can be used for additional freight capacity, or for passenger baggage. A number of Caravans are operated as skydiving aircraft with the left-side cargo hatch converted to a roll-up door.

This model typically seats nine passengers with a single pilot, although with a FAR Part 23 waiver it can seat up to fourteen passengers. The aircraft is also used for cargo operations.

 

 

Variants

 

Cessna 208 Caravan I

First production variant with a PT6A-114 turboprop engine and seating for up to nine passengers. The landplane variant was type approved on October 23, 1984 and the seaplane version with Wipline Model 8000 Amphibious/Seaplane Floats was type approved on March 26, 1986. Early aircraft can be modified to use the higher-powered PT6A-114A but have restricted operating limits.

Cessna 208 Caravan 675

Marketing designation for the 208 Caravan with a higher-powered PT6A-114A engine 675 hp. Serial Number 277 and up have the PT6A-114A, 675 hp engine.

Cessna 208A Cargomaster

A pure-cargo version of the Caravan developed with Federal Express (now FedEx) has a belly pod and no windows aft of the pilot's doors; 40 aircraft produced. All 208A aircraft were serialized as 208 models and had an 8,000 lb maximum takeoff weight.

Cessna 208B Grand Caravan

Officially named the 208B Caravan but marketed as the Grand Caravan. The 208B is 4 ft (1.2 m) longer than the 208; extending the cabin by the same amount, and the passenger-carrying version has eight side windows instead of the 208's six. The 208B has a PT6A-114A engine. It was originally certified as a two-seater cargo version on October 9, 1986 and as an 11-seater passenger aircraft on December 13, 1989, and was introduced in October 1990

It incorporated all of the best features of previous models. This model has four doors; one for each crew member, a right side airstair door, and a left side cargo door. It comes with 14 seats, but is limited to 9 passengers and 1 crew by the FAA.

Cessna 208B Super Cargomaster

Marketing name for the cargo variant of the 208B series. The Model 208A Cargomaster was limited in volume, not weight, so Cessna added 20 in to the fuselage ahead of the wing and 28 in behind the wing resulting in 34% more fuselage volume holding 340 cu ft of cargo. Cessna also offered an optional 111.5 cu ft, 1,090 lb belly pod.

Cessna increased the take-off weight to 8,750 lbs for this stretched Super Cargomaster, however, stuck with the 600 hp PT6A-114 engine. The aircraft was limited to 8,000 lbs take-off weight in icing conditions with this engine, so Cessna upgraded the aircraft to the PT6A-114A, 675 hp engine.

FedEx purchased 260 of this variant.

Cessna 208B Grand Caravan EX

Marketing name for upgraded version of the 208B Caravan certified in December 2012, with a more powerful 867 hp Pratt and Whitney Canada PT6A-140 that improves the rate of climb by 38% and was developed by Pratt & Whitney Canada specifically to power the 208B. The unladen weight is 807 lb more but maximum payload is only 90 lb more. While the 192 hp more powerful PT6A-140 gives a 11-knot higher cruise speed – and rate of climb is improved by 94 feet per minute, range is reduced to 964 nautical miles on a similar fuel capacity. It requires a longer take off run at 2,160 feet and its landing roll is at 1,871 feet. In early October 2019, after just under six years in production, the company had delivered 500 Grand Caravan EXs.

Caravan Amphibian

A 208 or 208B with either Wipaire 8000 or 8750 floats that have retractable landing gear, for water landings or land operations.

 

 

 

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